Cooperative learning (CL) is by no means a new idea. Teachers (a) bring closure to the lesson, (b) assess and evaluate the quality and quantity of student achievement, (c) ensure students carefully discuss how effectively they worked together (i.e., process the effectiveness of their learning groups), (d) have students make a plan for improvement, and (e) have students celebrate the hard work of group members. Establish groups using a variety of criteria, such as social skills, academic skills, student interests, and instructional objectives. Teachers must give a clear task and a group goal so students believe they “sink or swim together.”  Positive interdependenceexists when group members perceive that they are linked with each other in a way that one cannot succeed unless everyone succeeds. After team members are organized into these small groups and receive instruction from their teacher, students within the team cooperate with one another and work through the … The group work is an integral part of, not an adjunct to, the achievement of the learning goals of the class. Friends are a developmental advantage (see Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). If there is no positive interdependence, there is no cooperation. Teachers may also teach the concepts and strategies required to complete the assignment. Within cooperative situations, individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all other group members. Research suggests that collaborative learning is influenced by the quality of interactions. b. Diagnose the problems some students may have in working together and intervene to increase the effectiveness of the student learning groups. Cooperative learning is now an accepted and often the preferred instructional procedure at all levels of education. New York: Norton. From the work of Lewin’s students and colleagues, such as Ovisankian, Lissner, Mahler, and Lewis, it may be concluded that it is the drive for goal accomplishment that motivates cooperative and competitive behavior. The second issue is understanding the research validating social interdependence theory. Elementary, secondary, and university teaching was dominated by competitive and individualistic learning. When utilizing these three types of cooperative learning, any learning situations in any subject area with any age students and with any curriculum can be structured cooperatively. Cooperative Learning is part of a group of teaching/learning techniques where students interact with each other to acquire and practise the elements of a subject matter and to meet common learning goals. Many cooperative learning implementers have recommended and anecdotally supported the use of computer software (Broome and Chen, 1992; Hythecker et al., 1985; Rocklin et al., 1985), and expert instructors (McDonnell, 1990) to guide and monitor adult cooperative learning episodes. In addition, teachers collect specific data on promotive interaction, the use of targeted social skills, and the engagement in the desired interaction patterns. Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy that enables small groups of students to work together on a common assignment. Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. What does interactiveness mean? Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (1999). With our students and colleagues, we have conducted a series of studies relating cooperative, competitive, and individualistic efforts and attitudes to various indices of psychological health (see Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). In fact, the more diversity in a team, the higher the benefits for each student. Horney, K.  (1937). Mastering the basic elements of cooperation allows teachers to: 1. ), a short documentary video that shows important features of good collaboration, three or more challenging problems that students won’t be able to solve alone, and a few short videos depicting students like yours collaborating together. It was not an advantageous individual here and there who did so, but the group. The first and most important element is positive interdependence. People who are unable to do so often (a) become depressed, anxious, frustrated, and lonely, (b) tend to feel afraid, inadequate, helpless, hopeless, and isolated, and (c) rigidly cling to unproductive and ineffective ways of coping with adversity. In order to structure cooperative learning effectively, teachers need to understand how tostructure positive interdependence, individual accountability, promotive interaction, appropriate use of social skills, and group processing into learning situations. On being human. Asley Montagu (1966) was fond of saying that with few exceptions the solitary animal in any species is an abnormal creature. Kennesaw State University defines cooperative learning as when "small teams ...use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject." One indication of engagement in learning is time on task. Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy that enables small groups of students to work together on a common assignment. An important aspect of school life is engagement in learning. The arrangement of the room can create environmental interdependence and provide the teacher with easy access to observe each group, which increases individual accountability and provides data for group processing. Students can compete with groupmates, students can work individualistically while ignoring groupmates, or students can work cooperatively with groupmates. In the ideal classroom, all students would learn how to work cooperatively with others, compete for fun and enjoyment, and work autonomously on their own. It is difficult to find a text on instructional methods, a teacher’s journal, or instructional materials that do not discuss cooperative learning. Cooperative learning is not a self-instruction model, but rather a way for students to “mess around” with previously presented material. When international agreements are made and when international efforts to achieve mutual goals (such as environmental protection) occur, these five elements must be carefully implemented and maintained. Cooperative learning groups are both an academic support system (every student has someone who is committed to helping him or her learn) and a personal support system (every student has someone who is committed to him or her as a person). Introductory Focused Discussion:  Teachers assign students to pairs or triads and explain (a) the task of answering the questions in a four to five minute time period and (b) the positive goal interdependence of reaching consensus. Each may cause the other. Cooperative learning is a style of education that gets students actively participating in the classroom. In every classroom, instructional activities are aimed at accomplishing goals and are conducted under a goal structure. There are important cognitive activities and interpersonal dynamics that can only occur when students promote each other’s learning. Collaborative and cooperative learning 1. The study of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic efforts is commonly recognized as one of the oldest fields of research in social psychology. How students interact with each another is a neglected aspect of instruction. Meaning of interactiveness. The fundamental premise of social interdependence theory is that the way in which goals are structured determines how individuals interact, and those interaction patterns create outcomes. in sociology and has taught school for more than a decade in public and private settings. The closer classroom practices are to validated theory, the more likely they will be effective. Let them know that everyone should be able to explain the group’s thinking. The diversity of the samples studied and the variety of measures of psychological health provide considerable generalizability of the results of the studies. It should not be. Educational practices and thought, however, have changed. Length-wise, the workshop is designed to fit into a span of one week or five classes. In these preinstructional decisions, the social skills objectives specify the interpersonal and small group skills students are to learn. The group has to be clear about its goals and be able to measure (a) its progress in achieving them and (b) the individual efforts of each of its members. INTERACTIVENESS IN COOPERATIVE LEARNING 1. Cooperative learning makes practicing to mastery engaging and social and gives all students "study buddies" to help them when they run into difficulties. Since cooperation and conflict are inherently related, the procedures and skills for managing conflicts constructively are especially important for the long-term success of learning groups. The longer a cooperative group exists, the more caring their relationships will tend to be, the greater the social support they will provide for each other, the more committed they will be to each other’s success, and the more influence members will have over each other. Johnson, D. W.  (2003). The agenda of the base group can include academic support tasks (such as ensuring all members have completed their homework and understand it or editing each other’s essays), personal support tasks (such as getting to know each other and helping each other solve nonacademic problems), routine tasks (such as taking attendance), and assessment tasks (such as checking each other’s understanding of the answers to test questions when the test is first taken individually and then retaken in the base group). Moreover, children referred for psychological treatment have fewer friends and less contact with them than nonreferred children, their friendships are significantly less stable over time, and their understanding of the reciprocities and intimacies involved in friendships is less mature. Formal cooperative learning consists of students working together, for one class period to several weeks, to achieve shared learning goals and complete jointly specific tasks and assignments (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 2008). In the mid-1960s, cooperative learning was relatively unknown and largely ignored by educators. 3. The goal structure specifies the ways in which students will interact with each other and the teacher during the instructional session. Teachers make frequent use of group work, and thus cooperative learning, for a number of reasons: Despite cooperative or collaborative learning being ingrained in teaching practices for decades now, it has also been demonstrated that small group activities aren’t always very efficient. Procedures and strategies for teaching students social skills may be found in Johnson (2009) and Johnson and F. Johnson (2009). In the 1960’s studies by Jacobs and Campbell suggested that norms are pervasive, even deviant norms were handed down and not questioned. Teachers (a) formulate both academic and social skills objectives, (b) decide on the size of groups, (c) choose a method for assigning students to groups, (d) decide which roles to assign group members, (e) arrange the room, and (f) arrange the materials students need to complete the assignment. Monitoring students’ learning and intervening to provide assistance in (a) completing the task successfully or (b) using the targeted interpersonal and group skills effectively.While conducting the lesson, teachers monitor each learning group and intervene when needed to improve taskwork and teamwork. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Theorizing on social interdependence began in the early 1900s, when one of the founders of the Gestalt School of Psychology, Kurt Koffka, proposed that groups were dynamic wholes in which the interdependence among members could vary. The third essential component of cooperative learning is promotive interaction, preferably face-to-face. The fifth essential component of cooperative learning is group processing. Johnson D. W., & Johnson, R.  (1989). The fourth issue is to understand the flexibility and many faces of cooperative learning. In human societies the individuals who are most likely to survive are those who are best enabled to do so by their group. Cooperative learning is an extremely useful strategy in that it involves students in established, sustained learning groups or teams. Powered by Squarespace. Cooperative learning is a teaching method. Since then over 750 studies have been conducted on the relative merits of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic efforts and the conditions under which each is appropriate. Continuous improvement of the process of learning results from the careful analysis of how members are working together. By assigning students roles, role interdependence is established. Group members must know how to provide effective leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, and conflict-management, and be motivated to use the prerequisite skills. Permanent cooperative base groups provide the arena in which caring and committed relationships can be created that provide the social support needed to improve attendance, personalize the educational experience, increase achievement, and improve the quality of school life. If one fails, all fail. The discussion task is aimed at promoting advance organizing of what the students know about the topic to be presented and establishing expectations about what the lecture will cover. Also, Kolawole posited that cooperative learning strategy was more effective than competitive learning strategy in teaching of Mathematics at secondary school level. 3. (noun) Words near interactiveness in the Dictionary In human societies the individuals who are most likely to survive are those who are best enabled to do so by their group. Participants in the studies varied from ages three to post-college adults and have come from different economic classes and cultural backgrounds. 2. Finally, cooperative experiences, compared with competitive and individualistic ones, have been found to promote more positive attitudes toward the task and the experience of working on the task (effect-sizes = 0.57 and 0.42 respectively). Thus, the more cooperative learning experiences students are involved in, the more mature their cognitive and moral decision making and the more they will tend to take other people’s perspectives in account when making decisions. Two important aspects of using informal cooperative learning groups are to (a) make the task and the instructions explicit and precise and (b) require the groups to produce a specific product (such as a written answer). Seven-hundred-fifty-four studies contained enough data to compute an effect size (there are many studies from which an effect size could not be computed) (Johnson & Johnson, 1989). The class ends with a base group meeting. The absence of interdependence indicates no connection between people’s attempts to achieve their goals. Interactiveness Opportunity State Mercury is the smallest planet of them all Venus has a very poisonous atmosphere Neptune is the biggest planet of them all Saturn is the ringed planet from the Su Jupiter is the biggest planet of them all Despite being red, Mars is hot They worry their children will not engage, work, and learn in collaboration with others. In cooperative learning groups students are required to learn academic subject matter (taskwork) and also to learn the interpersonal and small group skills required to function as part of a group (teamwork). Positive goal interdependence tends to result in promotive interaction, negative goal interdependence tends to result in oppositional interaction, and no interdependence tends to result in no interaction. Informal cooperative learning ensures students are actively involved in understanding what is being presented. The diversity of these studies gives social interdependence theory wide generalizability and considerable external validity. Group members realize, therefore, that each person’s efforts benefit not only him- or herself, but all other group members as well. a.  Summarize the material just presented. Listening to student discussions can give instructors direction and insight into how well students understand the concepts and material being as well as increase the individual accountability of participating in the discussions. Materials on cooperative learning have been translated into dozens of languages. Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, F.  (2009). It arranges and mixes students of different level of ability and learning into groups. For thousands of years, humans havc recognised the value of cooperation in a broad range of endeavours, including education. Thirty five students enrolled in Masters programme (MA ELTL) were the subjects of the study. A typical class session may begin with a base group meeting, which is followed by a short lecture in which informal cooperative learning is used. Pre and Post-Tests: Before the session begins, learners can be given a 3-5 question quiz or asked to list 3-5 points they would cover in an essay particular question. 275-319). This study explores the effectiveness of a cooperative learning (CL) approach, where students work together and elaborate concepts of physics. c.  Predict what is going to be presented next; hypothesize. Assessing students’ learning and helping students process how well their groups functioned. Periodically, the teacher should structure a discussion of how effectively the pairs are working together (i.e., group processing). The research has been conducted over twelve decades by many different researchers with markedly different theoretical and practical orientations working in different settings and countries. The teacher’s role in using cooperative base groups is to (a) form heterogeneous groups of four (or three), (b) schedule a time when they will regularly meet (such as beginning and end of each class session or the beginning and end of each week), (c) create specific agendas with concrete tasks that provide a routine for base groups to follow when they meet, (d) ensure the five basic elements of effective cooperative groups are implemented, and (e) have students periodically process the effectiveness of their base groups. Intermittent Focused Discussions:  Teachers divide the lecture into 10 to 15 minute segments. Making preinstructional decisions. The neurotic personality of our time. Joining to­gether: Group theory and group skills (10th ed.). Cooperative learning is a methodology that employs a variety of learning activities to improve students’ understanding of a subject by using a structured approach which involves a series of steps, requiring students to create, analyze and apply concepts (Kagan, 1990). The feedback received during group processing is aimed at improving the use of social skills and is a form of individual accountability. American Psychologist, 58(11), 931-945. It also creates a set of issues for teachers using cooperative learning. The samples studied included middle-class junior-high students, middle-class high school seniors, high-school age juvenile prisoners, adult prisoners, Olympic ice-hockey players, adult step-couples, and business executives in China. 2. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. These five elements are essential to all cooperative systems, no matter what their size. Cooperative Learning (CL) has become a widely used approach to organize students for learning activities (Slavin, 1995; Johnson & Johnson, 1999). Positive interdependence creates a commitment to other people’s success as well as one’s own and is the heart of cooperative learning. If possible, show a number of short videos depicting students like yours collaborating together. d.  The pairs create a new answer that is superior to each member’s initial formulation by integrating the two answers, building on each other’s thoughts, and synthesizing. learning in an online and often asynchronous environment. The degree of emotional bonding that exists among students has a profound effect on students’ behavior. There is nothing magical about putting students in groups. The purpose of cooperative learning groups is to make each member a stronger individual in his or her right. Some specific recommendations resulting from the above-mentioned challenges are that teachers should focus on: Ideally, cooperative or collaborative learning activities would invite students to be more active participants in their own learning, to share and discuss their ideas, to engage in argumentation and debate, to play varying roles within the group, and to internalize their learning. The interdependence may be positive (which results in individuals working cooperatively to achieve their mutual goals) or negative (which results in individuals competing to see who will achieve the goal). During a lecture, demonstration, or film, informal cooperative learning can be used to focus student attention on the material to be learned, set a mood conducive to learning, help set expectations as to what will be covered in a class session, ensure that students cognitively process and rehearse the material being taught, summarize what was learned and precue the next session, and provide closure to an instructional session. Among children referred to child guidance clinics, 30 to 75 percent (depending on age) are reported by their parents to experience peer difficulties. There is a close association between antisocial behavior and rejection by the normal peer group. A theory of cooperation and competition. b. Sometimes team activities may come before teacher instruction, as when teams are conducting experiments in a discovery learning format. It doesn’t have to be perfect but can serve as an opener for a discussion about important aspects of BRAVE. Collaborative Learning Lopez, Maryan Joy Informal method of teaching and learning where students join together to further certain learning goals or create a major project. There are hundreds of studies indicating that cooperation, compared to competitive and individualistic efforts, tends to result in greater effort to achieve, more positive relationships, and greater psychological health. Students will work cooperatively in groups of four, taking turns when talking." Effort exerted to achieve includes such variables as achievement and productivity, long-term retention, on-task behavior, use of higher-level reasoning strategies, generation of new ideas and solutions, transfer of what is learned within one situation to another, intrinsic motivation, achievement motivation, continuing motivation to learn, and positive attitudes toward learning and school. When they think they have the correct answer, they have to explain their reasoning to the teacher who will choose the reporting student. Beth Lewis has a B.A. Individual accountability is ensured by the small size of the group. Cooperative Learning Defined: Cooperative Learning is an instructional strategy where small teams of students, usually two to six members, work together to maximize their individual and collective learning. The teacher decides which goal structure to implement within each lesson. To be cooperative, to reach the full potential of the group, five essential elements need to be carefully structured into the situation:  positive interdependence, individual and group accountability, promotive interaction, appropriate use of social skills, and group processing (Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). The close relationship between theory, research, and practice makes cooperative learning somewhat unique. introduced features of good discourse and collaboration, also influenced by the Association for Middle-Level Education: If you are planning on including small group activities as a part of your instruction, and want to avoid common complications outlined above, it is a good idea to devote a few lessons at the beginning of your course to coaching your students. Monitoring the learning groups creates individual accountability; whenever a teacher observes a group, members tend to feel accountable to be constructive members. An extensive literature search was conducted aimed at identifying all the available studies from published and nonpublished sources. Stronger effects are found for peer support than for superior (teacher) support. The Cooperative Learning Institute is a 501(c)3 organization dedcatited to furthering the practice and study of cooperation in the classroom. Give a reaction to the theory, concepts, or information presented. Cooperators spent considerably more time on task than did competitors (effect size = 0.76) or students working individualistically (effect size = 1.17). Group processing exists when group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships. Individual accountability exists when the performance of each individual student is assessed and the results are given back to the group and the individual in order to ascertain who needs more assistance, support, and encouragement in completing the assignment. 7 COOPERATIVE LEARNING Written by: Dr. Fazal-ur-Rahman Reviewed by: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Javed Without the cooperation of its members society cannot survive, and the society of man has survived because the cooperativeness of its members made survival possible…. If correct, the group will receive another problem. Not all groups are cooperative (Johnson & F. Johnson, 2009). It also provides time for teachers to move around the class listening to what students are saying. One of his colleagues, Kurt Lewin refined Koffka’s notions in the 1920s and 1930s while stating that (a) the essence of a group is the interdependence among members (created by common goals) which results in the group being a “dynamic whole” so that a change in the state of any member or subgroup changes the state of any other member or subgroup, and (b) an intrinsic state of tension within group members motivates movement toward the accomplishment of the desired common goals. Deutsch’s basic premise was that the type of interdependence structured in a situation determines how individuals interact with each other which, in turn, largely determines outcomes. Teachers planning to use CL often learn about implementation through participation in workshops or by reading text-based materials describing CL’s essential elements. It is much more than just putting students into groups and hoping for the best. Research on social interdependence has been conducted in numerous cultures in North America (with Caucasian, Black-American, Native-American, and Hispanic populations) and countries from North, Central, and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, the Pacific Rim, and Africa. The procedure is: a. After each segment, students are asked to turn to the person next to them and work cooperatively in answering a question (specific enough so that students can answer it in about three minutes) that requires students to cognitively process the material just presented. Members’ primary responsibilities are to (a) ensure all members are making good academic progress (i.e., positive goal interdependence) (b) hold each other accountable for striving to learn (i.e., individual accountability), and (c) provide each other with support, encouragement, and assistance in completing assignments (i.e., promotive interaction). c.  Students listen carefully to their partner’s answer. If learners are provided access to correct … Reaching out: Interpersonal effectivenessand self- actualization (10th ed.). Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. Elementary, secondary, and individualistic learning that collaborative learning is an integral part of, not adjunct... One that should be used together ( i.e., group processing ) self-instruction model, but rather a for! Continues to work together to maximize their own and each other ’ s.! 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